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The nineteen-nineties have seen a massive rebirth of the real estate industry in China. Although ownership of Chinese land is in theory restricted to the State and to agricultural collectives, in practice the concept of the 'right to use' land has evolved into a system of real estate law with many parallels in the West, including such familiar elements as mortgages, leases, zoning, liens and taxation. The difference lies in procedural requirements, and it is in this practical area that prospective foreign investors in Chinese real estate will most appreciate this informative and very useful book.Taking into account the Land Use Purpose Control System that went into effect in China on January 1, 1999, the authors of this book fully explain such important components of real estate development and use as the following: planning requirements; qualifying to obtain a land use right; fee requirements; registration procedures; taxes affecting real estate; bankruptcy provisions affecting real estate; landlord/tenant rights and duties in commercial leasing.They provide clear guidance through the complex web of administration and regulation at every government level, including the important role of the agricultural collectives in the expanding urban fringes. They analyze the areas of unsettled law--for example, tenant default remedies--that might create significant concern for Western investors, and offer recommendations that avoid pitfalls.
In March 1999, New York University Salomon Center in assocIatIOn with the Department of Finance at NYU Stern held a one-day conference on the impact of real estate cycles on the real estate industry both from a domestic as well as an international perspective. The conference featured the leading research on this topic in the United States, Europe and Asia. Currendy, the real estate industry is at a critical point. New development projects around the world are being put on hold given recent developments in the international capital markets. The industry is hard hit by the decline in real estate investment trust (REIT) share prices and a shrinkÂ ing pool of capital for real estate ventures. This has unfortunately coincided with serious financial problems of very large hedge funds and other institutional investors in the market for commercial mortgage backed securities. There is need for new insights into the implications of U. S. and global real estate cycles on real estate secuÂ rities including REITs and mortgage-backed securities as well as direct real estate investment. This global orientation is important given the high mobility of capital into the real estate, the increasing integration of real estate markets, and the proposed expanÂ sion of real estate investment trusts (REIT) into international real estate. The process of globalization has resulted in increased competition between cities for the attracÂ tion of investment.
With the explosive growth in international investments, more and more lawyers and financial advisors realize the acute need to properly address critical issues of international estate planning for their clients. Whether you are counseling a foreign national or an American citizen, whether your practice is in the U.S. or abroad, whether you want to develop a general expertise in the area or are confronted by these issues on a more frequent basis, this compendium is a necessary and practical resource to help you identify and navigate many of the complex planning and regulatory compliance issues, both legal and tax, involved in international estate planning. In addition to providing a complete overview of the basic principles and procedures of international asset management from addressing the conflict of laws issues that are central in determining which country s laws will govern the disposition of a donor or decedent s wealth to the basic transfer tax rules for nonresident aliens, U.S. citizens, and resident aliens A Guide to International Estate Planning teaches proven strategies, techniques, and practical applications to use for meeting your clients international estate planning needs. Twenty-two detailed chapters are written by trust and estate lawyers with significant experience in international issues. Their advice goes beyond simply highlighting issues in estate planning, emphasizing key issues as compliance, treaty, choice of law, and estate administration problems. This updated edition now includes chapters on FATF and anti-money laundering and offshore compliance, as well as chapters from several foreign jurisdictions to provide comparative insights on different topics."
The law of foreign investment is at a crossroads. In the wake of an unprecedented global financial crisis and a sharp surge of investment arbitration cases, states around the world are reflecting on the pros and cons of the current liberal investment regime and exploring new ways ahead. This book brings together leading investment lawyers from more than 20 main jurisdictions of the world to tackle the challenge of producing a first comparative study of foreign investment law. Based on the General and National Reports presented at the 'Protection of Foreign Investment' Session at the 18th International Congress of the International Academy of Comparative Law (Washington DC, July 2010), the book is a unique resource for investment lawyers. Part I of the book presents a comparative overview of key aspects of foreign investment protection in the world today, including admission, investment contracts, treatment standards, tax regime and incentives, performance requirement, property and expropriation, monetary transfer and dispute settlement. Part II presents in-depth and detailed accounts of the investment laws of more than 20 jurisdictions, including Argentina, Australia, Canada, China, Croatia, Czech Republic, Ethiopia, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Japan, South Korea, Macau, Peru, Portugal, Russia, Singapore, Slovenia, Turkey, the UK and the USA. The book will be an invaluable guide to legal and business communities with an interest in the law and practice of foreign investment in the world in general and in these jurisdictions in particular.
Maitreya's star, the German Bell flying saucer, alien abduction -- what does it all mean? Space-born technologies reaching out to the stars, new theories on power helixes to address a desperate world's growing need for energy, and the anticipated arrival of inter-dimensional aliens bearing gifts -- all possible in the dawning age of Aquarius. The history that we know, the history we have learned through indoctrination, and the history supporting the very pillars of intellectualized institutions of modern reason: knowledge of the Seven Estates rationalized upon precepts of a material universe collapsing into entropy. However, from the dying worm of this incarnation, a promise written before the world began inscribed in every strand of DNA, an embedded code with extraordinary potential. Here lies the answer to the question of metamorphose posed by Nicodemus to Jesus in the third chapter of John's gospel. "How can a man be born when he is old? Can he enter the second time into his mother's womb, and be born?" Jesus answered, "Truly, truly I say to you, except a man be born of water and of the Spirit, he cannot enter into the kingdom of God." This is the meaning of times divided by time and the foundation of a new heaven and a new earth. There exists a God eternal, a being of omnipotent perfection sending a message from outside of time and space to restore light to the children of men and a measure of transcendence through a begotten progeny conceived in both flesh and spirit: the first truly human, truly God to ascend the elements, becoming the very cornerstone of creation and the source code of the Eighth Estate.
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